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A common aspect of photonic devices is the presence of critical components which emit, transmit, modulate, amplify, divide, switch or otherwise process light over the whole spectrum from ultraviolet over the visible to the near-, mid- and far-infrared.  Particles and residues absorb, attenuate, or obscure light.  As such, critical light-processing elements of photonic devices must be free of surface particles and residues to properly function.  Photonic devices require effective (and sometimes very selective) surface cleaning and treatment during various stages of fabrication and test, for example during assembly, following polishing, soldering, wire bonding, or in preparation for the application of thin-film coatings or for adhesive bonding. Moreover functional photonic devices such as fiberoptic connectors and lenses require critical cleaning as part of a preventive maintenance program to ensure continued reliable performance.

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